The dull make no response; the bright flash back the fact with a changed quality. Being critical is not the same thing as criticizing. The problem fixes the end of thought and the end controls the process of thinking. Even more important, in our era of snap-judgments and instant opinions, is Dewey’s point about the slowness and deliberative contemplation inherent to such deep thought: Sometimes slowness and depth of response are intimately connected. How We Think: John Dewey on the Art of Reflection and Fruitful Curiosity in an Age of Instant Opinions and Information Overload, Singularity: Marie Howe’s Ode to Stephen Hawking, Our Cosmic Belonging, and the Meaning of Home, in a Stunning Animated Short Film, The Cosmic Miracle of Trees: Astronaut Leland Melvin Reads Pablo Neruda’s Love Letter to Earth’s Forests, How Kepler Invented Science Fiction and Defended His Mother in a Witchcraft Trial While Revolutionizing Our Understanding of the Universe, 13 Life-Learnings from 13 Years of Brain Pickings, Emily Dickinson’s Electric Love Letters to Susan Gilbert, Rebecca Solnit’s Lovely Letter to Children About How Books Solace, Empower, and Transform Us, Fixed vs. Growth: The Two Basic Mindsets That Shape Our Lives, In Praise of the Telescopic Perspective: A Reflection on Living Through Turbulent Times, A Stoic’s Key to Peace of Mind: Seneca on the Antidote to Anxiety, The Courage to Be Yourself: E.E. We desire neither the slow mind nor yet the hasty. Each phase is a step from something to something — technically speaking, it is a term of thought. We are approaching a new age of synthesis. While the process may involve examining flaws and errors, it is much more. Each term leaves a deposit which is utilized in the next term. Thinking is not like a sausage machine which reduces all materials indifferently to one marketable commodity, but is a power of following up and linking together the specific suggestions that specific things arouse. Objects are sucked, fingered, and thumped; drawn and pushed, handled and thrown; in short, experimented with, till they cease to yield new qualities. “Brightness” may be but a flash in the pan. The common assumptions that, if the [person] only thinks, one thought is just as good for his mental discipline as another, and that the end of study is the amassing of information, both tend to foster superficial, at the expense of significant, thought. The very inevitableness of the jump, the leap, to something unknown, only emphasizes the necessity of attention to the conditions under which it occurs so that the danger of a false step may be lessened and the probability of a right landing increased. Dewey argues that thinking arises from the need to action — something undoubtedly evidenced by the history of successful entrepreneurship, wherein many great inventions came from the inventor’s own need for something that didn’t yet exist in the world, be it the Polaroid camera, which Edwin Land dreamed up after his little daughter asked why she couldn’t see a photograph right after it was taken, or Instapaper, which Marco Arment built out of frustration with how hard it was to read web articles on the iPhone offline. https://www.brainpickings.org/2014/08/18/how-we-think-john-dewey/ Studies that use reflective dialogue suggest that facilitated dialogue with peers and clinical educators is the most effective approach to foster deeper reflection, critical thinking and clinical reasoning. Such activities are hardly intellectual, and yet without them intellectual activity would be feeble and intermittent through lack of stuff for its operations. Curiosity rises above the organic and the social planes and becomes intellectual in the degree in which it is transformed into interest in problems provoked by the observation of things and the accumulation of material. critical thinking in Dewey’s sense is the consideration of hypotheses suggested as . When the question is not discharged by being asked of another, when the child continues to entertain it in his own mind and to be alert for whatever will help answer it, curiosity has become a positive intellectual force. Shonda’s teacher had also found Dr. Gray’s study and learned it was sponsored by a multi-national distributor of wine. Instead, in his book How We Think , he argued for the importance of what he called "reflective thinking": [when] the ground or basis for a belief is deliberately sought and its adequacy to support the belief examined. To truly think, Dewey argues, we ought to consider not only the origin of our beliefs but also how they affect our actions, which they inevitably do: Thinking in its best sense is that which considers the basis and consequences of beliefs…. Dewey writes: Intellectual organization originates and for a time grows as an accompaniment of the organization of the acts required to realize an end, not as the result of a direct appeal to thinking power. The critical thinking of these Renaissance and post-Renaissance scholars opened the way for the emergence of science and for the development of democracy, human rights, and freedom for thought. A John Dewey source page Originally published as: John Dewey. It involves a jump, a leap, a going beyond what is surely known to something else accepted on its warrant. But the thing that has come out victorious in a test or trial of strength carries its credentials with it; it is approved, because it has been proved. According to Dr. Gray’s study, drinking four or more glasses of wine a day will help reduce the chances of heart attack, increase levels of good cholesterol, and help in reducing unwanted fat. —. In his 1910 masterwork How We Think (free download | public library), Dewey examines what separates thinking, a basic human faculty we take for granted, from thinking well, what it takes to train ourselves into mastering the art of thinking, and how we can channel our natural curiosity in a productive way when confronted with an overflow of information. But Dewey did not make very extensive use of the term "critical thinking". It is our capacity for depth that determines the richness and fruitfulness of our thought — something of equally urgent importance today, when the information web is dominated by bite-sized opinion riffs and “How Cat Are You?” quizzes. The process gives reasoned consideration to evidence, contexts, conceptualizations, methods, and criteria" (1990). http://publicspeakingproject.org/psvirtualtext.html, CC BY-NC-ND: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives, https://www.flickr.com/photos/davedugdale/5086493000/, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:John_Dewey_in_1902.jpg. Educators, philosophers, and theologians have long concerned themselves with the process of critical thinking. These are: (a) a state of perplexity, hesitation, doubt; and (b) an act of search or investigation directed toward bringing to light further facts which serve to corroborate or to nullify the suggested belief. John Dewey (1910: 74, 82) introduced the term ‘critical thinking’ as the name of an educational goal, which he identified with a scientific attitude of mind. To think well is to construct fruitful linkages: [The] function by which one thing signifies or indicates another, and thereby leads us to consider how far one may be regarded as warrant for belief in the other, [is] the central factor in all reflective or distinctively intellectual thinking… Reflection thus implies that something is believed in (or disbelieved in), not on its own direct account, but through something else which stands as witness, evidence, proof, voucher, warrant; that is, as ground of belief. But others reflect, or give back in varied lights, all that strikes upon them. We wish neither random diffuseness nor fixed rigidity. Shonda found an article reporting the results of a study conducted by a Dr. Gray. (How brilliantly this applies not only to the pursuit of capital-T truth, but also to the basic fabric of our wants and desires — so often we dismiss something as unworthy without having tried it out. — Reflective thinking is always more or less troublesome because it involves overcoming the inertia that inclines one to accept suggestions at their face value; it involves willingness to endure a condition of mental unrest and disturbance. Reflective thinking, in short, means judgment suspended during further inquiry; and suspense is likely to be somewhat painful… To maintain the state of doubt and to carry on systematic and protracted inquiry — these are the essentials of thinking. Even though the phrase critical thinking uses the word “critical,” it is not a negative thing. Dewey begins with the foundation of reflective thought, the defining quality of the fruitful, creative mind: More of our waking life than we should care to admit, even to ourselves, is likely to be whiled away in this inconsequential trifling with idle fancy and unsubstantial hope…. Knowledge cannot be merely a degree or a skill…it demands a broader vision, capabilities in critical thinking and logical deduction, without which we cannot have constructive progress. If Shonda had taken a few extra minutes to critically examine the study, she may have been able to avoid the dreaded “D.”. Before we get there, though, let’s consider a hypothetical example of critical thinking in action. From this springs the next developmental stage, the what/why phase that often exasperates parents and teachers but provides the foundation for critical thinking: A higher stage of curiosity develops under the influence of social stimuli. Claim yours: Also: Because Brain Pickings is in its fourteenth year and because I write primarily about ideas of a timeless character, I have decided to plunge into my vast archive every Wednesday and choose from the thousands of essays one worth resurfacing and resavoring. To say “I think so” implies that I do not as yet know so. In the feeling, however dim, that the facts which directly meet the senses are not the whole story, that there is more behind them and more to come from them, lies the germ of intellectual curiosity. You can beam some bit-love my way: 197usDS6AsL9wDKxtGM6xaWjmR5ejgqem7. Clearly, a person may be hampered in any of these three regards: His thinking may be irrelevant, narrow, or crude because he has not enough actual material upon which to base conclusions; or because concrete facts and raw material, even if extensive and bulky, fail to evoke suggestions easily and richly; or finally, because, even when these two conditions are fulfilled, the ideas suggested are incoherent and fantastic, rather than pertinent and consistent. How We Think is a magnificent read in its entirety, exploring everything from the defects and potential reform of the education system to how we can train ourselves to interpret facts and create meaning out of them. To turn the thing over in mind, to reflect, means to hunt for additional evidence, for new data, that will develop the suggestion, and will either, as we say, bear it out or else make obvious its absurdity and irrelevance… The easiest way is to accept any suggestion that seems plausible and thereby bring to an end the condition of mental uneasiness. Beyer, B. K. (1995) Critical thinking. “Pouring Red Wine in to Glass” by Dave Dugale. Errors may support one another mutually and weave an ever larger and firmer fabric of misconception. Like the scientist, whose chief responsibility is always to remain uncertain, so the thinker must cultivate a capacity for not only welcoming but seeking out doubt: If the suggestion that occurs is at once accepted, we have uncritical thinking, the minimum of reflection. Influence how we judge something be pretense, a few weeks later, she received a of... Metaphor of dull and bright implies, some minds are impervious, or give back in varied,... 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