Oxygen Toxicity. Air pressure changes within the enclosed lung cavity and ventilator-induced injury may accompany and be indistinguishable from O 2 toxicity. If a patient receives an FiO2 > 60% for a prolonged period of time, it increases their chances of oxygen toxicity. Complications of ongoing mechanical ventilation itself include pneumothorax, oxygen toxicity, hypotension, and ventilator-associated lung injury. Exhaled air flows away from the patient. Oxygen may be essential to life but it must be received in a certain concentration to achieve the desired biological benefit. Oxygen is toxic because of its propensity to undergo univalent reduction leading to the generation of reactive oxygen … Pulmonary oxygen toxicity - High concentrations of oxygen (>60%) may damage the alveolar membrane when inhaled for more than 48 hours resulting in pathological lung changes. 2. The pulmonary cellular response to hyperoxic exposure and increased ROS is well described. Oxygen is both lifesaving and toxic. Much less has been written about this topic recently than about alveolar overdistension and mechanical lung injury from high pressures and sheer forces. It might be due to oxygen toxicity. Although oxygen therapy has been used in the care of critically ill patients for many years, the recognition of pulmonary oxygen toxicity as an important clinical problem is relatively recent. Oxygen toxicity is an iatrogenic illness caused by a high partial pressure of inspired oxygen during the course of oxygen therapy. Although local oxygen toxicity to the lung is well accepted, recent evidence has called into question the negative consequences of hyperoxemia in other organ beds. The biochemical basis of oxygen toxicity is increased production of highly reactive, partially reduced metabolites of oxygen, including hydrogen peroxide and free radicals, by cells in hyperoxia. 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